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The Importance and Development of Data Center Efficiency Trends - From P.U.E. to W.U.E. and C.U.E.

Information Technology and Management Project
Students
Dhivya Venkatachalam
Faculty
William Slater, III
Course Name/Number
ITMT 535 - Data Center Architecture
Date
Fall 2017

Problem Identified: The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) along with the data centers creates up to 2% of the worldwide CO2 discharge, a number which is equivalent to the emissions generated by the aviation industry. These data centers are assessed to have the quickest developing carbon footprint from over the entire ICT area, mostly because of innovative advances, for example, the distributed computing and the fast development of the utilization of Internet across the world.

While climate change is recognized as one of the key challenges of humankind, the International Paris agreement limits the increase of temperature to no more than 2 ◦C comparatively to the era before industrial revolution. While maintaining energy efficiency is important, data centers which usually run 24/7 all year round, are more energy intensive with typical power densities of 537–2154 W/m2 which can even go up to 10 KW/m2.  This kind of high energy consumption is related directly to the IT power and equipment present inside the data centers along with the lighting and other power distribution requirements. The ICT reports that 2 % of the global CO2 emissions are from data centers which leaves them to have the fastest growing carbon footprint globally. While the machines are fed with electricity, electrical energy will be converted to heat energy. This image shows the total energy consumption of the data centers over various years from a global perspective including American and European industries.

This energy consumption has increased exponentially over the years especially due to the high use of internet services combined with cloud computing. Data centers have been intended to permit operational and capacity changes. A considerable lot of them run excess power and cooling frameworks to give better unwavering quality, while the energy utilization inefficiency is very high. Be that as it may, there is no fitting administrative system and arrangements to restrain the negative effect of data centers' energy utilization to CO2 outflows.

Research Analysis: The main goal of this paper is to assess, break down and introduce the present patterns in energy utilization and efficiency in these data centers, their constant increase which has led to the need for reduction in the related environmental, economic, and other security related impacts along with the carbon and water utilizations. Thus, Water Usage Effectiveness (W.U.E) and Carbon Usage Effectiveness (C.U.E) has become the talk and only voluntary approaches by these data centers can provide a successful solution in addressing our climate and energy issues. This paper also walks through how the P.U.E of the data centers can be decreased every year, by iterating their importance within the data center and from the outside. All analyses and findings of current trends in the energy efficiency of the data center are made using the data retrieved from those companies which participated in the European Code of Conduct for Data Center Energy Efficiency initiative.

Conclusion: This paper identifies ways which are in alignment with the Code of Conduct, that brings out the high efficiency in terms of PUE in a more energy efficient way and with extra financial savings. As computer densities increase, it is important for managers to examine their data centers and find solutions for maximizing smart, efficient, and a low-impact use of resources.

While most of the data centers have started to follow a greener approach to lessen their carbon footprint they leave on the planet earth and find ways to increase their power and water efficiency, this paper provides them an empirical examination on the productivity of a data center which provides a clear approach to analyse the effectiveness at the server level. It additionally underlines on the positive effect that CUE and WUE creates on the business similar to PUE and provides the knowledge to data center proprietors, administrators, producers and different industrialists on enhancing/upgrading the asset effectiveness.

For further information on this paper, including further descriptions of related work, research analysis, associated findings of effective ways, and next steps, please contact the Adjunct Industry Professor of the Department of Information Technology and Management Prof. William Slater III at 
wslater@iit.edu 
or the author.

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